With the assistance of the Soviet Union, the Mongolian People's Republic was formed in 1924 along collectivist lines. Under Khorloogiin Choibalsan, the nation's population suffered a series of Stalinist purges in which religious institutions such as Buddhist monasteries were destroyed and as many as 30,000 people were executed. The nation was successfully defended by Russia during the Soviet-Japanese War of 1939.
In the early 1990s, Mongolia experienced a democratic revolution following the Russian example, introducing a multi-party system, market economy, and a new constitution. Its name was changed to the Republic of Mongolia (Mongγol ulus).
The Mongolian Armed Forces consist of the General Purpose Force, Border Defence Force, and the Internal Security Force, with a total strength of approximately 28,000 personnel. Mongolia has been an active participant in peacekeeping efforts in recent years, participating in missions to Sierra Leone, Ethiopia, Congo, Eritrea, Western Sahara and Liberia, as well as the ongoing ISAF effort in Afghanistan.
Mongolian Camouflage Patterns
- The standard camouflage pattern of the Mongolian armed forces is a three-color arid design incorporating dark and medium brown shapes (with small patches of black) on a light brown background.
- Mongolian Border Guards 1st pattern - used 1990s until replaced by the 2nd pattern in 2007
- Mongolian Border Guards 2nd pattern - used since 2007
- The pattern below is worn by the Mongolian Customs Department, a non-military organization.
- Special Police of the Internal Security Force wear the pattern below, which seems to be a copy of the Turkish "compressed leaf" design.
- The Police Academy issues the blue camouflage pattern seen below.
- In 2011, a pixelated version of the standard three-color arid pattern was introduced to the Mongolian Armed Forces.
- Introduced in 2012, the Border Guards have replaced their old organic camouflage design with a pixelated pattern of their own. Seen below, the BG pattern is in fact a completely different design from the Army version with a much more dense concentration of pixels.
Other Camouflage Patterns worn by Mongolia
- The Mongolian contingent deployed to Iraq from 2005-2006 wore modified American tricolor desert pattern camouflage uniforms.
- Comparision of the old (left) and the new (right) Border Guards patterns
We gratefully acknolwedge the assistance and contributions of Ben Playford in creating this article.